Rorisang Kgosana
Premium Journalist
27 minute read
26 Sep 2016
8:00 pm

Wits runs poll on whether lectures should resume

Rorisang Kgosana

Updates on student protests countrywide.

The multitude of students entered the Tshwane North College, insisting students vacate their classes to join the march| Supplied

The University of Witwatersrand (Wits) on Monday ran a poll to allow students and staff to voice their opinion on whether lectures should resume next week or not.

“In order to facilitate as wide a response as possible to the current crisis, the University will run a poll later this week to gauge the thoughts of staff and students on the resumption of the academic programme on Monday, the 3rd of October 2016, if the appropriate security measures are in place. All responses will remain anonymous,” spokeswoman Sherona Patel said.

Patel said the university believed that the voices of the majority of students and staff needed to be heard.

Universities around the country including the University of KwaZulu-Natal and the University of Pretoria have been protesting against the increase of fees for 2017.

She said the university had received hundreds of emails calling for the academic programme to resume and has responded to these concerns.

“We are requesting the Independent Electoral Commission to oversee this process and to verify the results independently,” she said.

The Minister of Higher Education Blade Nzimande called for universities to make the decision on what percentage they would increase the fees, but said they were not allowed to exceed eight percent.

“If the majority of students and staff support the reopening on Monday, the university will call upon government and the police to meet their obligations to protect the university’s property and to safeguard the lives of students and staff,” Patel said.

She said the university was extremely concerned about the unfolding and growing crisis in the higher education sector and was calling for an urgent meeting between vice-chancellors, the higher education and training minister, justice and correctional services minister and the police minister in order to engage further on this matter.

“All university activities remain suspended until further notice. Senior management will continue to reach out to students in an attempt to engage on these critical issues,”

“Wits’ stability is important in the context of the broader higher education system. We cannot lose the academic year and we appeal to the university community and wider society to make your voices heard on this key issue of national importance that impacts on our collective futures,” Patel said.

She said if a conclusion was not reached on what would be done next week, more security would be deployed onto campus.

– African News Agency (ANA)

Earlier: University of KwaZulu-Natal remains open despite arson attacks

The University of KwaZulu-Natal remained open on Monday despite another arson attack.

University spokesman Lesiba Seshoka said: “Executive Management condemns in the strongest possible terms the malicious damage to property that has occurred on its campuses.”

The condemnation followed the burning of the William O’Brian residence on the Pietermaritzburg residence earlier on Monday morning.

He said that apart from the fire to the reception area of the residence there were also “reports of the smearing of excrement on the Commerce Building”.

He said that a test and a lecture at the Pietermaritzburg campus were cancelled.

Seshoka said that security checks also resulted in a man being thrown off campus after he was found in possession of an illicit substance. He did not say what the substance was.

“Disciplinary action will be taken against another student found in possession of drug paraphernalia,” he said.

He pointed out that the university had not taken any decision over fee increases. The university’s council would only finally decide on fee increases, if any, in October.

Sphelele Nguse, the student representative council leader for the university’s Pietermaritzburg campus, said that the struggle for free education was in danger of losing its moral high ground because of acts of vandalism that have characterised the protest action.

Nguse’s comments followed the burning of the William O’Brian residence on the Pietermaritzburg residence earlier on Monday morning.

“Our struggle is getting hijacked by negative elements that simply do not have the interest of students at heart. No student who values education can burn university infrastructure when that same facility will be needed in future,” said Nguse.

He called on UKZN students to stand up and protect their institution from thugs.

“Some of the people taking part in the protests are not students, and you can see that in the way they conduct themselves. We have always advocated for peaceful and violence-free protests, anyone who understands our cause would therefore not engage in vandalism or violence,” said Nguse.

“We want free education which is a genuine demand. But it is equally important to ensure that the infrastructure of our institution is protected because we are going to need in future,” Nguse added.

He conceded that because of the acts of vandalism, it was becoming difficult to get support from other sectors, especially civil society and religious groups.

“No organisation wants to be associated with thuggery, so even the structures that would support us are becoming reluctant when on a regular basis there are media reports of vandalism. This needs to stop and it is up to students to ensure that this does not happen in our name,” he said.

On Friday, Higher Education Minister Dr Blade Nzimande made a similar call for UKZN students to protect their institution, saying it pained him as a former student to see parts of the campus getting destroyed by people he labelled as thugs.

He said parents and workers should not stand and watch as the institution gets destroyed, as this would hurt generations of students that wanted to acquire education.

Police spokesman Lieutenant Colonel Thulani Zwane said: “This morning at about 07:15am a building was set alight at the UKZN Campus in PMB by a group of about five people. They fled the scene after the incident.”

Zwane said no arrests had been made and that police were investigating the arson attack.

Last week the campus was the scene of running battles between the police and students amid protests demanding the elimination of fees.

A fire was started at the Malherbe Residence. Cars were stoned, one student was injured and police had to use rubber bullets, stun grenades and tear gas.

Nine students were arrested on Thursday and appeared in court for a bail application. They are currently in custody awaiting their bail hearing, which is expected to take place on Friday.

– African News Agency (ANA)

Earlier: DUT suspends lectures for two days

The Durban University of Technology announced on Monday that lectures had been suspended for Tuesday and Wednesday.

University spokesman Alan Khan said there would be no lectures, assessments or practicals, but that staff would still be expected to report for work.

The announcement followed protests on Monday as the university suspended its academic programme at the Indumiso campus in Pietermaritzburg.

Khan initially said that the decision had been taken to suspend lectures at the Indumiso campus in Pietermaritzburg, but later in the day it was decided to suspend the academic programme at all campuses.

Khan said: “We couldn’t compromise on student’s safety.”

In Durban, students marched between the four campuses – Steve Biko campus, Ritson Campus, ML Sultan Campus and the City Campus – singing struggle songs and demanding the elimination of tuition fees.

‎There were reports that some students attempted to remove students from lectures and classes at the ML Sultan Campus.

Referring to the protests in Durban, police spokesman Thulani Zwane said: “The situation is tense at the moment and members are on the scene. A fast food outlet was destroyed by protesters. No arrests have been made.”

It is understood that it was a Chicken Licken store that was invaded by students.

Zwane said that in Pietermaritzburg at the Indumiso Campus there was a protest involving some 400 students.

“We can confirm that 400 students are protesting outside Indumiso Campus. The situation is calm at the moment. Members are at the scene to monitor the situation,” he said.

With the exception of two broken windows at the City Campus, there were no immediate reports of violence or damage to property at the institution, which has a student body of about 27,000 students.

The institution had been closed last week and Monday marked the start of the fourth term.

Khan said the interim vice chancellor, Dr John Volmink, had written to staff, students and alumni on the latest situation regarding fees following the announcement by Higher Education Minister Blade Nzimande last week that fees could be increased by as much as eight percent, but that government would provide extra funding for the poorest students.

He said that the institution was urging all students who participate in protests to do so peacefully and to respect the rights of those who did not want to protest.

– African News Agency (ANA)‎

Earlier: Rhodes warns it will shut down for the year

Rhodes University on Monday warned its students that continued instability on campus as a result of #FeesMustFall protests may result in the closure of the institution for the rest of the year.

In a letter issued to students by the office of the vice-chancellor of Rhodes University, the institution in Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape, pleaded with students to “think hard” about their actions.

“Rhodes University supports the call for free high quality education for the poor. Rhodes University is working tirelessly together with other universities to lobby government for exactly this,” the university said in the letter.

“Continued instability will destroy our higher education system. If normal activities cannot continue next week, the University will be left with no option but to close and send all students home.”

Last week, the university welcomed an announcement by Higher Education Minister Blade Nzimande recommending that tertiary institutions should individually determine fee increases for 2017, but to cap it at eight percent for students who could afford to pay.

The new fee structure was designed so that students whose family income is R600,000 or less would have no fee increase in 2017, as the state would cover the increase.

Rhodes University said should the public higher education collapse, it would be the poor and the working class families who bore the brunt of a dysfunctional higher education of dubious quality, while the rich would send their children to private or overseas universities.

But since the announcement that universities should determine their fees for 2017, students across the country have gone on the rampage, burning buildings and torching cars in their bid to demand completely free higher education.

This has brought the whole tertiary education system to a complete halt throughout the country as protests have made teaching and learning untenable, resulting in postponements and suspensions of academic activities.

Rhodes University said closure of its doors would have dire consequences for everyone involved.

“The closure of the university will have dire consequences for the town, for all university staff, and for students themselves who will not be able to complete the academic year.”

The university said the primary cause of the crisis faced by the higher education system was its chronic underfunding over a long period of time.

– African News Agency (ANA)

Earlier: We will not back down – VUT SRC president

Suspending academic activities will not solve anything, according to president of the student representative council (SRC) at the Vaal University of Technology (VUT) Troy Mathebula.

He was reacting to a decision taken by the university to suspend all academic activities to October 10 due to ongoing protests by students who have been demanding free education for all.

“Students will still come back on October 10 to demand free education and nothing is going to stop us.

“We have been trying to call meetings with the university management for some time now but they are never available and when they see us protest, they think suspending activities will solve the situation,” Mathebula said.

The protest at VUT comes at a time when several universities around the country are engulfed by violent student protests.

The protests which initially started at Wits University last week Monday, were sparked by an announcement made by Higher Education and Training Minister Blade Nzimande that it was up to universities to determine tuition fee increases.

Protesting students marched through Pretoria CBD shutting down private education campusses on their way to the department of higher education, 26 September 2016, Pretoria. Picture: Jacques Nelles

Protesting students marched through Pretoria CBD shutting down private education campusses on their way to the department of higher education, 26 September 2016, Pretoria. Picture: Jacques Nelles

However, students reacted and said their struggle is beyond tuition fee increases, stressing that they are demanding free education for all.

Earlier in the morning, staff members were barred from entering the campus as protesting students chanted and danced to liberation songs in front of the university’s main entrance.

They barricaded the busy Andries Potgieter boulevard in Vanderbjilpark with rocks.

At some stage, police officers who kept a close eye on the protest, fired rubber bullets at the protesters.

Just before noon, the university management issued a statement, ordering all students to vacate their residences by 4pm.

At first students were defiant, vowing not to leave but many were seen leaving in their droves from around 3pm.

“In view of the escalating disruptions by some students, management resolved to contain the situation by immediately closing the university and reopen it on October 10 and this is done to protect the lives and properties of the university.”

Last week, staff members were advised twice to leave their respective work stations earlier than usual last week before management decided to suspend all activities on Friday.

Not far from VUT, management at the North West University (NWU) Vaal campus also resolved to suspend activities until further notice following an arson attempt incident at the main entrance in the early hours of yesterday.

“Due to concerns for the safety of both students and staff members, all classes and campus activities will be suspended until further notice.”

On Friday, NWU obtained a court interdict to prevent any further mass action or disruption, barely days after academic activities were suspended.-stevent@citizen.co.za

Earlier: Bribery allegations surface around NMMU #FeesMustFall protests

Allegations of attempted bribery, third force involvement and apparent factionalism amongst students have surfaced in the ongoing Fees Must Fall protests which have brought Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University to a shutdown since early last week.

The DA Student Organisation (DASO) led Student Representative Council (SRC) held a meeting at City Hall on Monday to address issues surrounding the fight for free quality education. Other immediate issues relate to debt relief, assistance for the “missing middle”, outsourcing and allowances.

The gathering outside the building was illegal and later moved inside City Hall’s auditorium where students and parents were addressed by SRC President Nicholas Nyati and member of Parliament Yusuf Cassim.

Since last week, nine students have been arrested following protests to the Boardwalk entertainment premises which turned violent.

The students are facing charges which relate to public violence, contravention of the national roads act and obstructing police officials in the execution of their duties.The students, six females and three males, were released on bail last week.

Addressing the crowd, Nyati said that while the SRC supported the cause for free quality education it did not support the shutting down of the institution.

“We had to make a very unpopular decision to say we want our classes to continue, we made this decision knowing that there would be consequences, where people will attack us, call us names, but our duty is not to be popular. Our duty is to be morally and consciously correct,” said Nyati.

Nyati said that he had received a text message last week from a student leader, stating that the taxi association would join the protest action if they were given a tender for a shuttle service, once classes had resumed.

“I received a text from a student leader last week Thursday, he was saying, ‘Nic, we need the taxi associations to support the march’, then he said there is a condition…’You need to promise as President that when schools go back to normal the taxi drivers will get the tender for shuttles.”

Nyati also said that at one point last week he needed airtime to call the police, but he was told by certain individuals that he “should not worry” as there were people “funding” the students’ protest action.

He added that SRC members had been threatened by several student leaders who were reportedly unhappy with the decisions taken by the SRC.

Nyati said that the ongoing protest had caused him to have “sleepless nights” and further called upon the Port Elizabeth community to unite as to ensure the re-opening of NMMU.

“We need to unite and take the fight to the government… We have SARS [the South African Revenue Service], a branch of treasury who have direct contact with national, it’s very important how we take the fight to SARS…As the SRC we are going to submit a memorandum to SARS and state we agree with the cause and secondly the [Fees] Commission we want them to report as early as December because July is too late it’s after the budget speech,” he said.

Meanwhile, police barred dissatisfied students from entering City Hall were the meeting was underway. Students claimed to be from the Fees Must Fall movement, but many of the students were dressed in t-shirts and head gear representing the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) and SA Students Congress (SASCO).

Students from the #FeesMustFall movement, an apolitical organisation, have reportedly called for the exclusion of Daso members from the group as well as the resignation of SRC members.

Outside City Hall, members of the Public Order Policing Unit were at the ready with water canons. Security officials were on high alert while protest action continued with some students refusing to disperse while others made their way to NMMU for another meeting.

NMMU student Sumaya Amod, attended the meeting with her family and said that there appeared to be uncertainty on a way forward.

“I came here today [Monday] to find out what is the general consensus, are things going to be cancelled for the rest of the year? There is so much uncertainty we have no idea what is going to happen, one moment there’s a notice about how we going back next minute classes are cancelled.”

She added that the apparent divisions amongst students were unsettling and said politics had nothing to do with the students’ right to education.

“The factionalism is confusing because you have one group agreeing to one thing and another group against another group, [there is] just no unity amongst the students,” said Amod.

-African News Agency (ANA)

Earlier

Wits students plan to take protest to the VC’s Parktown home

As the #FeesMustFall movement escalated in Gauteng on Monday afternoon, hundreds of Wits university students marched from the main campus in Braamfontein to the institution’s Medical School campus in Parktown to shut down the campus in their bid to fight for free education and against fee hikes for 2017.

The students also planned to take their march to Wits vice-chancellor Adam Habib’s Parktown home.

Wits SRC secretary-general Fasiha Hassan said the purpose of the march to the medical campus was to get management to shut down the campus and ensure that students there joined the protest. “People from the rural areas must be given the opportunity to study here. We need doctors there,” said the student leader, who was addressing the nearly 1 000 students gathered inside a campus building.

Heard at the meeting were plans to take government to task at the Constitutional Court by filing an urgent application to force government to enforce free education. The aim, according to one of the students addressing the crowd, was to achieve this by the end of the week.

Students take protest to Parktown. Pciture: Michel Bega

Students take protest to Parktown. Pciture: Michel Bega

The students were aggrieved by police reactions to the numerous protests around the country.

“For the last three or four days, the police are trying to dehumanise us. We cannot have that. When police are brutalising us, we won’t be liars like Adam Habib,” a student leader said

Meanwhile, students st the University of Johannesburg were joined by hundreds of students from various campuses to convene a mass meeting at the Auckland Park Campus.  Plans were under way for the two institutions to joined forces in the coming week.

It has been exactly a week since Wits students shut down the university after Higher Education Minister Blade Nzimande announced an unpopular message that universities would decide for themselves on fee hikes for next year, with a recommendation not to exceed 8%.

While this hike would not apply to National Student Financial Aid Scheme (Nsfas) students and the ‘missing middle’ who could not afford fees but didn’t qualify for Nsfas.

Earlier

VUT students warned to vacate residences

All students from the Vaal University of Technology (VUT) have been given until 4pm on Monday to vacate all residences. This comes barely hours after students embarked on a protest action demanding free education.

Earlier on Monday morning, staff members were barred from entering the campus as protesting students assembled at the main entrance.

^66979480136B5AB3DEFCD894D65E22E12B92071FDC052DBC37^pimgpsh_fullsize_distr

.

In a statement issued on Monday just before noon, the university said students should also vacate external residences. “In view of the escalating disruptions by some students, management has resolved to contain the situation by also immediately closing the university.

“The university will be reopened on October 10.”

Meanwhile students are currently meeting at the residences. Earlier police officers had to fire rubber bullets at students who barricaded roads with rocks.

https://youtu.be/e0fCKhGYRbw

Not far from there, the North West University (NWU) Vaal campus also urged students to leave campus for safety reasons following an arson attempt at the institution’s main entrance.

The protest actions by students started at Wits University last Monday following the announcement by Higher Education and Training Minister Blade Nzimande that it was up to universities to determine tuition fee increases.

However, irate students have made it clear all they wanted now was free education for all, a move described by some as radical considering the fact that last year’s #FeesMustFall protest action centred largely on fee increases. Police officers are also keeping a close eye on both universities, as is the case at others universities that have been plagued by violent demonstrations.

Earlier

Pretoria students block streets with burning tyres

Pretoria students returned to the streets on Monday morning with burning tyres as thousands of students demanded free education.

Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) students ended their night vigil by shutting down the Main, Arts and Arcadia campuses on Monday morning.

Tyres were torched at campus entrances while hundreds of other students joined in the protest.

“We want to shut down colleges and universities to get solidarity from students. Education affects us all. It would have been better if Higher Education Minister Blade Nzimande announced a zero fee increment and addressed the issue of free education,” said one of the student leaders who wished to remain anonymous.

He said the students condemn any violence and would rather protest peacefully.

Multitudes of students entered the Tshwane North College, insisting students vacate their classes to join the march.

Under police escort, the students plan on marching to other higher education institutions with their final destination being the Higher Education Department.

https://youtu.be/owvUI55spLM

Meanwhile, classes resumed at the University of Pretoria on Monday after a three-day shut down last week.

UP students along with the Economic Freedom Fighters Student Command (EFFSC) had gathered outside the Hatfield campus throughout Sunday night in a night vigil against fee increments.

No disruptions were seen at the campus on Monday morning.

Students from across the country have caused unrest at universities following Nzimande’s announcement of fee increments for the 2017 academic year.

Nzimande said poor students and the ‘missing middle’ would experience no fee increments, however, universities could increase fees by no more than 8%.

Earlier

NWU students advised to vacate premises after ‘arson attempt’

Students from the North West University (NWU) Vaal campuses were on Monday morning advised to vacate the premises following an alleged arson attempt.

The latest attempt comes in the wake of ongoing protests by students from several universities around the country, calling for free education for all. In a statement issued on Monday, NWU said the arson attempt happened in the early hours of Monday at the main entrance of the university.

University of North West entrance| Steven Tau

University of North West entrance| Steven Tau

“Due to concerns for the safety of both students and staff on campus, all classes and campus activities will be suspended until further notice.”

The university said there was a R20 000 reward for anyone with information that could lead to the apprehension of the involved perpetrators. On Friday, the university obtained a court interdict to prevent any further mass action or disruption barely days after academic activities were suspended.

Not far from there, staff members from the Vaal University of Technology (VUT) were forced to go back home after students embarked on protest action. Students there are demanding an urgent council meeting.

Meanwhile the protest action that initially broke out at the Wits University last week following the announcement by Higher Education and Training Minister Blade Nzimande that it was up to universities to determine tuition fee increases, protest action have spread to a number of institutions of higher learning.

Earlier

Residence TV room torched at UKZN

A residence at the University of KwaZulu-Natal’s (UKZN) Pietermaritzburg campus was set alight on Monday morning.

Police spokesman Lieutenant Colonel Thulani Zwane said: “This morning at about 07:15am, a building was set alight at the UKZN Campus in PMB by a group of about five people. They fled the scene after the incident”.

Zwane said no arrests had been made and that police were investigating the arson attack.

The blaze was doused and according to an African News Agency (ANA) correspondent, the fire appeared to have been set alight in the residence’s television room.

There were no immediate reports of protests and classes appeared to be going ahead as normal.

There was no immediate comment from the university.

Last week the campus was the scene of running battles between the police and protesting students demanding the elimination of fees.

A fire was started at the Malherbe Residence, cars were stoned, one student was injured and police had to use rubber bullets, stun grenades and tear gas to disperse the crowds.

Nine students were arrested on Thursday and appeared in court. They are currently in custody awaiting their bail hearing, which is expected to take place on Friday.

Earlier

NWU students advised to vacate premises after ‘arson attempt’

Students from the North West University (NWU) Vaal campuses were on Monday morning advised to vacate the premises following an alleged arson attempt.

The latest attempt comes in the wake of ongoing protests by students from several universities around the country, calling for free education for all. In a statement issued on Monday, NWU said the arson attempt happened in the early hours of Monday at the main entrance of the university.

“Due to concerns for the safety of both students and staff on campus, all classes and campus activities will be suspended until further notice.”

The university said there was a R20 000 reward for anyone with information that could lead to the apprehension of the involved perpetrators. On Friday, the university obtained a court interdict to prevent any further mass action or disruption barely days after academic activities were suspended.

Not far from there, staff members from the Vaal University of Technology (VUT) were forced to go back home after students embarked on protest action. Students there are demanding an urgent council meeting.

Meanwhile the protest action that initially broke out at the Wits University last week following the announcement by Higher Education and Training Minister Blade Nzimande that it was up to universities to determine tuition fee increases, protest action have spread to a number of institutions of higher learning.

https://youtu.be/pAMolqvLihE

Earlier

Cars torched on University of Zululand campus

As many as seven cars and a small bus were set alight at the University of Zululand’s (Unizulu) main campus in KwaDlangezwa, near Richards Bay, in the early hours of Monday morning.

A lecturer at Unizulu, speaking on condition of anonymity, confirmed the number after photographs of the vehicles began circulating on social media.

University spokesperson Gcina Nhleko was not immediately available for comment.

Captain Sibusiso Guma, spokesperson for Mtunzini SAPS, confirmed that officers had been dispatched to investigate.

“At the moment, we cannot say how many cars were burnt, as our members are still at the scene busy determining the extent of the fire,” Guma said.

Vehicles overturned and burnt at UKZN. Picture: Kerry Ibbetson.

Vehicles overturned and burnt at UKZN. Picture: Kerry Ibbetson.

Staff have been on strike since August 15 after wage talks between university management and the National Education, Health and Allied Workers Union (Nehawu) collapsed.

The university implemented a no-work, no-pay policy against striking staff, as the Nehawu strike went into its seventh week on Monday.

Earlier

No reports of violence from DUT protest

Students at three of the Durban University of Technology’s campuses marched on Monday for the removal of fees.

There were no immediate reports of violence as the marches and protests got under way.

University spokesperson Alan Khan said there were protests reported at the institution’s Pietermaritzburg campus as well as the Steve Biko and ML Sultan campuses in Durban but added the institution was open.

The institution had been closed last week, and Monday marked the start of the fourth term.

The Durban University of Technology students in the Durban campuses brave the rain as they walk while singing they were on a mission to chase out students from the classrooms, as they were starting a strike to show their dissatisfaction with the university and its management. Picture Phumlani Thabethe Date 22 July 2015

The Durban University of Technology students in the Durban campuses brave the rain as they walk while singing they were on a mission to chase out students from the classrooms, as they were starting a strike to show their dissatisfaction with the university and its management. Picture Phumlani Thabethe Date 22 July 2015

He said interim vice-chancellor John Volmink had written to staff, students and alumni on the latest situation regarding fees following the announcement by Higher Education Minister Blade Nzimande last week that fees could be increased by as much as eight percent.

Khan said the institution was urging all protesting students to do so peacefully and to respect the rights of those who did not want to protest.

He said police and the university’s security were monitoring the situation.

Earlier

VUT staff barred from entering campus

Staff members from the Vaal University of Technology (VUT) were on Monday barred from entering the campus in the wake of ongoing protests by students who demand free tertiary education for all.

Last week alone, staff members were twice advised to leave work stations for safety reasons, while on Friday management decided to suspend all university operations.

.

Students’ representative council (SRC) president Troy Mathebula said students have called for an urgent council meeting, stressing no classes would resume until their demands were met.

At VUT, protesting students were seen singing and dancing to liberation songs while police officers continued monitoring the situation. The busy corners of Andries Potgieter Boulevard also remain partly barricaded with rocks.

The VUT protest comes at a time when several universities around the country are engulfed by protest action that started last week at Wits University following the announcement by Higher Education and Training Minister Blade Nzimande that it was up to universities themselves to determine tuition fee increases.

.

.

However, irate students made it clear their struggle was beyond just fees rising, and that they demanded free education for all.

The protests have also been marred by violence, particularly at the University of KwaZulu Natal (UKZN), where students clashed with police officers last week, as well as at Wits, where three petrol bombs were discovered at the weekend.